Monday, January 29, 2007

Kidney, Its Functions in the Human Body

By: Bishal Boro

The kidneys are like the bean formed excretory organs in the vertebrates. Kidneys are the Part of urinary system; it helps in the filtering out of the wastes particularly urea from the blood plus excrete them, all along by means of water, as the urine. In the medical field which studies kidneys and its various diseases affecting the parts of kidney is called as the nephrology, starting from the Greek name for the kidney; the adjective sense "kidney connected is renal, from the Latin. In human beings, kidneys are situated in the posterior area of the abdomen. Which is present one on both side of the spine; the exact right kidney sits merely below the liver, and the left underneath the diaphragm as well as adjoining to the spleen. Apart from that each kidney are the part of the adrenal gland which is also known as the suprarenal gland. The common irregularity inside the abdominal cavity reasons up by the liver consequences in the right kidney to be rather less important than the left one.

In the normal human adult, every kidney is on 11 cm long and regarding 5 cm thick, and also weighing 150 grams. The Kidneys weigh around 0.5 percent of the person's whole body weight. These kidneys are the "bean-shaped" organs, as well as include a concave side facing here medially. On top of this medial feature of each kidney is the opening, known as the hilum, which own up the whole of renal artery, the renal nerves, vein and the ureter.

The external portion of our kidney is called as the renal cortex, which sit directly underneath the kidneys as the loose adjoining tissue/fibrous capsule. Profound to the cortex all lays the renal medulla that is separated into 10-20 renal pyramids in human beings. Each pyramid jointly with the connected overlying cortex appears as the renal lobe. The slant of every pyramid known as the papilla empties keen on a calyx, plus the calyces unfilled into the renal pelvis. The pelvis sends out urine toward the urinary bladder by means of the urethra. The kidneys are the retroperitoneal this means that they lie at the back of the peritoneum, the inside layer of the abdominal cavity. These are just about at the vertebral stage T12 to L3, plus the right kidney typically lies slightly lesser than the left in arrange to provide accommodation the liver. The upper division of the kidneys is partially secluded by the eleventh and the twelfth ribs, and each entire kidney is surrounded with two layer of fat "the perirenal fat as well as the pararenal fat which help in the process of cushion it. Within very rare cases, this is also possible to have originated three kidneys.
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well i have been writting articles on various topics till date. which includes about health and medications as main subjects and looking forward to write about various other topicds too.
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Tuesday, January 23, 2007

Diabetes Doesn't Have to Lead to Chronic Kidney Disease

By: Groshan Fabiola

Diabetes causes damage to the kidneys by causing harm to the small blood vessels that make the kidneys filters. If the filters get really damaged then chronic kidney disease develops. This is an incurable disease but it can be controlled. An early treatment of diabetes helps by reducing the damage the kidneys receive so that when dialysis is needed the kidneys won't fail.
If identified at the right moment the physician will be able to give you a treatment that will stop the disease to damage further the body. Insulin dependent diabetes (Type 1) can be diagnosed very easy and early because of the very rapid symptoms, so that the kidneys won't get damaged. If one has type 1 diabetes he`ll surely know it, but if he has type 2 or non-insulin dependent diabetes he may not find out about it for years because the first symptoms appear after at least 3 years. This means that the small blood vessels that make up the kidneys filters are already damaged by the high sugar level in the blood. This is when one of the first kidney disease symptom appear. It is called microalbuminuria and it is characterized by a really high volume of protein in the urine. That protein should have remained in the blood but because the damage sustained by the kidneys it reaches the urine.
After someone is diagnosed with diabetes of any type, he should do regular microalbumin checking. This will help a physician to see if there's any damage on the kidneys. The doctor will give you a plan to keep. This isn't a radical plan; type 1 diabetes ill people need to take their insulin while type 2 just needs to watch their diet and make allot of exercise.
If a patient has a high blood pressure and diabetes in the same time he has more chances to develop kidney disease (also know as nephropathy). In this case he will be prescribed ACE inhibitors to get the blood pressure. Studies have show that ACE inhibitors are a good treatment against kidney disease even if the patient has a regular blood pressure.
If someone is diagnosed with diabetes it his crucial he has a healthy life. Alcohol and cigarettes will only get in the treatments way. Psychical exercise should be made as often as possible.
Not in all cases a patient diagnosed with diabetes will develop chronic cancer disease. If you live a healthy life and you follow your doctors advice you can reduce and even avoid kidney damage.
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So, if you want to find out more about diabetes or even about diabetes treatment please follow this link
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Friday, January 19, 2007

Chronic Kidney Disease Symptoms

By: Jessica Deets

The kidneys remove waste products and excess fluid from the body through the urine. They also serve to regulate the sodium, potassium, phosphorus and calcium levels. Additionally, the kidneys remove toxins from the blood and release hormones into the blood stream to regulate blood pressure, and to have strong bones and to make more red blood cells.

Chronic kidney disease involves damage to kidneys where they can't regulate these bodily functions anymore. Kidney disease problems manifest themselves when wastes accumulate in the blood and you feel fatigued. Complications include heart disease, high blood pressure, anemia, bone problems, and nerve damage. Often kidney disease occurs gradually over time. Kidney disease can lead to kidney failure, and once the kidneys fail, either a transplant or dialysis is needed to stay alive.

Two main causes of chronic kidney disease are high blood pressure and diabetes (although kidney disease can also cause high blood pressure). For diabetics, they have to monitor their blood sugar level. If it gets too high and can cause damage to other organs, such as to the kidneys, heart, nerves, and eyes. While high blood pressure can lead to strokes, heart attacks, or chronic kidney disease, because of the blood pressure effect on the blood vessels.

Anyone can get chronic kidney disease at any age. Early detection and treatment can often keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse. Some of the symptoms of kidney disease could include fatigue, concentration difficulty, a lack of appetite, insomnia, swelling in the extremities (such as feet and ankles), muscle cramps, dry skin and frequent urination.

If you have any of these conditions, see your doctor for help. You can work together to determine the cause of any of these symptoms. If it is chronic kidney disease, your doctor may recommend a special diet to minimize buildup of the waste products and fluid in your blood. Your doctor may recommend that you see a renal dietitian (they specialize in diets for kidney disease).

The goal is to control the amount of protein, phosphorus and sodium that you eat in order to reduce the workload on your kidneys. This helps to keep your body healthy.

This information is not meant to replace medical advice. If you need medical advice see your physician. Your physician can work with you to come up with a solution for your lasting health. Copyright (c) 2006
About the Author:Jessica Deets has been researching the internet for over 4 years and finds valuable information to help people. The website at has information, news and a current blog regarding steroid alternatives.

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Tuesday, January 16, 2007

Getting Tough On E. Coli Can Help Prevent Kidney Failure

by: News Canada

(NC)-Despite the fact that Canada's food supply is among the safest in the world, sometimes the food we eat can make us sick.

Foodborne illness, of which there are more than one million cases reported each year, results from the presence of a harmful strain of bacteria called E. coli, which is found in contaminated aliments. These bacteria produce toxins that cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever and vomiting.

One particular strain of E. coli may lead to a condition known as Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), which causes damage to the kidneys - particularly among children and the elderly. Common foods that contain harmful E. coli are beef, pork, lamb and poultry. However, as Montrealer Pascale Dupont discovered, these are not the only potential sources. Her 9-year-old daughter Émilie developed HUS through an E. coli infection she most likely contracted after eating mussels.

"My daughter was in the hospital for weeks and had to undergo dialysis treatments because of kidney failure due to infection," explained Dupont. "While she is no longer on dialysis, her kidneys were permanently damaged, and she will likely need dialysis again in the future."

According to Dr. Marie-Josée Clermont, a nephrologist at Montreal's St-Justine Hospital, "Infections could be prevented if people recognized that they play an important role in ensuring the safety of the foods they eat."
To help reduce the risk of foodborne illness, The Kidney Foundation of Canada recommends the following four guidelines:
CLEAN: Wash hands, utensils and surfaces with soap and hot water before, during, and after food preparation. Wash raw vegetables; lettuce should be washed leaf by leaf to remove all visible soil.
SEPARATE: Don't cross-contaminate by allowing uncooked foods and their juices to come into contact with one another. Use a separate cutting board for raw meats and vegetables. Always keep foods covered.
COOK: Cook food thoroughly at proper temperatures and serve immediately.
CHILL: Freeze or refrigerate perishables, prepared foods and leftovers within two hours. Thaw meats in the microwave or in the refrigerator, but never at room temperature.
For further information, visit The Kidney Foundation of Canada's Web site at
About The Author
News Canada provides a wide selection of current, ready-to-use copyright free news stories and ideas for Television, Print, Radio, and the Web.
News Canada is a niche service in public relations, offering access to print, radio, television, and now the Internet media, with ready-to-use, editorial "fill" items. Monitoring and analysis are two more of our primary services. The service supplies access to the national media for marketers in the private, the public, and the not-for-profit sectors. Your corporate and product news, consumer tips and information are packaged in a variety of ready-to-use formats and are made available to every Canadian media organization including weekly and daily newspapers, cable and commercial television stations, radio stations, as well as the Web sites Canadians visit most often. Visit News Canada and learn more about the NC services.

Thursday, January 11, 2007

Herbal Supplements and Chronic Kidney Disease--What You MUST Know

By Lisa Barger

If you're struggling with chronic kidney disease, or CKD, you've probably considered trying alternative treatments like herbal supplements to help you deal with this serious medical condition. But before you begin an herbal regimen there are a few things you should know.

As a CKD patient, you may be less able to tolerate herbal supplements than a person with healthy kidneys would be. Many of the most common "diuretic" herbs may cause irritation or even permanent damage to your already fragile organs. And even if your doctor gives you a green light to pursue herbal remedies, it's important to remember that many herbal supplements aren't tested for purity, safety or efficacy.

It's a good idea to discuss with your doctor any herbal supplements you're taking or thinking about starting but a few are considered especially dangerous for CKD patients. Using information from the Council on Renal Nutrition, the National Kidney Foundation recommends that you take extra care before using these herbs:

  • Artemisia
  • Autumn Crocus
  • Black Pearl
  • Chapparal
  • Comfrey
  • Horse Chestnut
  • Lobelia
  • Mandrake
  • Pennyroyal
  • Periwinkle
  • Pokeroot
  • Sassafras
  • Senna
  • Vandelia
  • Yohimbe

This is by no means a complete list. And don't forget that some of the most popular herbal supplements are known to interact with the medications you may already be taking. Blue cohosh, St. Johns wort, ginko and echinacea are only a few herbs known to interact with a number of prescription medications. If you're a transplant patient you should be especially careful because an interaction with your anti-rejection medications could potentially put you at risk for rejection of your new kidney.Remember, only your doctor is qualified to give you advice about herbal supplements. Ask him for more information.

Lisa Barger is a traditional naturopath specializing in natural health education. To learn more about Ms. Barger's belief in "Empowerment through Education" or to take a free online natural health class see her website,

Monday, January 8, 2007

How Hypertension Is Linked To Diabetes And Kidney Failure?

By: Ng Peng Hock

Are you aware that about 40 percent of Asian diabetic patients with hypertension eventually develop kidney disease, 10 percent of these patients will require dialysis within 10 years of diagnosis? And, only 25 percent of these dialysis patients will survive for 5 or more years from the time of initial diagnosis of their kidney ailment.
Both high blood sugar levels and hypertension increase the risk of kidney failure for diabetics. Presence of protein in urine is the earliest sign of kidney disease.
On the other hand, hypertension is also a risk factor for non-diabetic kidney disease and contributes to kidney failure. Apparently, high blood pressure increases the pressure within the kidney filter, leading to its damage and to the leakage of protein in the urine. A substance presented in the blood stream and in the tissues, known as angiotensin II, contributes to hypertension-related damage and scarring in the kidney.Hence, blocking the effects of angiotensin II by drugs is an important part of the treatment of hypertension and kidney disease. Basically, there are 3 approaches to the treatment of hypertension and diabetic kidney disease:
1. controlling the patient’s blood sugar to bring it to normal levels,
2. reducing blood pressure to optimal levels,
3. blocking the effects of angiotensin II.
These approaches are most effective when used together. Intensive treatment to achieve normal blood sugar levels through oral drugs insulin, a strict low-carbohydrate diet, avoidance or cession of smoking, regular exercise and maintenance of a healthy body weight can reduce the risk of diabetic kidney disease.
It has been shown that control of hypertension can slow down the progress of kidney disease. Maximum benefit can be achieved when the patient’s blood pressure is below 130/80 mmHg. This target blood pressure level can be maintained usually with more than one type of blood pressure lowering drug. Two classes of drug, Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), have been shown to prevent or slow down kidney failure independent of their effects on blood pressure. When used early in the treatment of hypertension, these two drugs show their effectiveness in eliminating protein in the urine and preventing the onset of diabetic kidney disease.
It is mandatory for all diabetic patients to have urine testing for protein in order to detect the onset of kidney disease in its early stages. Furthermore, the lowering of blood cholesterol to normal levels, avoidance or cession of smoking, aspirin therapy and regular exercise are likely to prevent death from heart attack or stroke among these patients.
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Kidneystones Symptoms, Treatment, Recurrence and Precautions

By: kidneystoneforum

Kidney stones often do not cause any symptoms. However, if they become lodged in the ureter (the thin tube between the bladder and the kidney) symptoms can be very severe. Usually, the first symptom of a kidney stone is extreme pain, which occurs when a stone acutely blocks the flow of urine. The pain often begins suddenly when a stone moves in the urinary tract, causing irritation or blockage. Typically, a person feels a sharp, cramping pain in the back and side in the area of the kidney or in the lower abdomen. Sometimes nausea and vomiting occur. Later, pain may spread to the groin. If the stone is too large to pass easily, pain continues as the muscles in the wall of the tiny ureter try to squeeze the stone along into the bladder. As a stone grows or moves, blood may appear in the urine. As the stone moves down the ureter closer to the bladder, you may feel the need to urinate more often or feel a burning sensation during urination. If fever and chills accompany any of these symptoms, an infection may be present. In this case, you should contact a doctor immediately or if you need expert advices go to, this is dedicated to kidneystones and it will be helpful if you are uncertain about any development. Kidneystone forum discusses the signs and symptoms at length.
The treatment of kidney stones may vary depending on the size of the stones and condition of the patient. The treatment generally aims at relieving the patient of pain, passing kidney stones through urine or removing them surgically. Some of the professional treatments discussed in include:
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL): It uses shock waves to break the stones into tiny pieces that are then passed in your urine.
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: When ESWL isn't effective, or the stone is very large, your surgeon may remove your kidney stone through a small incision in your back using an instrument called a nephroscope.
Ureteroscopic stone removal: The stone is snared with a small instrument (ureteroscope) that's passed into the ureter through your bladder. Ultrasound or laser energy can also be directed through the scope to shatter the stone. These methods work especially well on stones in the lower part of the ureter.
Parathyroid surgery: Some calcium stones are caused by overactive parathyroid glands, which are located on the four corners of your thyroid gland, just below your Adam's apple. When these glands produce too much parathyroid hormone, your body's level of calcium can become too high, resulting in excessive excretion of calcium in your urine. Most often, this is the result of a small benign tumor in one of your four parathyroid glands. A doctor can surgically remove the tumor. Login to kidneystone forum where more alternative treatments and remedies have been discussed.
In order to avoid recurrence of kidneystones you need to bring down the level of calcium in your blood, keep your urine as dilute as possible. Kidney stones (calcium oxalate stones) form when the concentration of calcium in the kidney tubules gets to a critical concentration. There is no exact measure for "critical concentration." One way of minimizing the concentration is to always be sure that you have plenty of water to excrete. That means drinking at least 8 glasses of water each day (8 oz per glass).in additionally be physically fit. Again go to where you can get more professional help on this topic. As a preventive measure, one should avoid diets rich in proteins, sodium and nitrogen, and drink lot of water. But even after all the precautions; they have a tendency to reappear in a patient's body.
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Sunday, January 7, 2007

Symptoms Of Kidney Problems You Should Know

Symptoms of kidney problems generally develop over a period of years. As you know, the kidneys perform many vital functions that help maintain overall health. But if the blood vessels in the kidneys are damaged, the kidneys will not clean the blood properly and symptoms of kidney problems will develop. With impaired kidney function, the body retains more water and salt than it should, leading to weight gain.
Early kidney disease has no kidney problem symptoms, however, it can become kidney failure with little or no warning if left undetected. Kidney disease results from damage to the nephrons which are tiny structures inside the kidneys that filter blood.
Here are common symptoms of kidney problems:
• Swelling around the face, eyes, feet and ankles
• Pain or a burning sensation during urination
• Fever
• Need to urinate more frequently
• Problems controlling urination
• Blood in the urine
Of course, the symptoms of kidney problems above can be experienced due to other health conditions, so seeing your health care provider is advised. A kidney condition called nephrotoxicity occurs when the body is exposed to a toxin or drug that damages the kidneys. When kidney damage happens, you cannot rid your body of excess urine and wastes. Blood electrolytes such as potassium and magnesium become elevated and creatinine levels in the blood will also be elevated. Nephrotoxicity can be temporary due to dehydration or you may be developing kidney failure.
What causes kidney failure? Diabetes and high blood pressure are two main causes of kidney failure. Many people know that they have these diseases, but they may not know that they are at risk for kidney disease. Usually the damage happens gradually over years and in both kidneys. Since there may not be obvious symptoms of kidney problems, you're not aware it's happening.
In diabetes, the body doesn't use glucose very well. If you have diabetes, you can prevent kidney disease by keeping your blood sugar levels under control. High blood pressure can damage the small blood vessels in your kidneys. When this happens, your kidneys cannot filter wastes from your blood very well, so healthy blood pressure levels are important for kidney health.
Kidneys are important organs that deserve a little care and consideration. It's easy to ignore our kidneys until there are symptoms of kidney problems. Learn as much as you can about kidney-friendly things one can do to help keep your kidneys functioning as they were designed to do.
Copyright 2006 InfoSearch Publishing

About the Author:Read about tips for avoiding kidney problem symptoms at - Olinda Rola is President of InfoSearch Publishing and webmaster of - a website of natural health articles, information and resources for healthier living.

Kidney Cleansing For Good Health

Why is kidney cleansing important? Every day, your kidneys process the blood and helps to sift out waste products (like mercury, copper, arsenic-bound chemicals and other toxins) and extra water. The waste and extra water become urine. The urine then flows to your bladder through the ureters. Your bladder stores urine until you go to the bathroom. When your kidneys become overloaded with toxins, diseases of the kidneys and bladder can happen as you are unable to discharge the waste and urine from your body.

When you do kidney cleansing, you help to cleanse the toxin built-up from the kidneys and the bladder. A cleansed kidney works optimally in its function to filter out pollutants, drugs, chemicals and other harmful materials. When you do a kidney cleanse, you also help to eliminate urinary tract infections and dissolves kidney stones.

What are some of the other functions of the kidneys? Other than being vital in the elimination of metabolic wastes, your kidneys also help to regulate your blood pressure, maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, activates Vitamin D, helps in maintaining acid-base balance (excretes alkaline salts).

What are the signs and symptoms of an ailing kidney? Lower back pain, edema (“water holding") in the lungs, legs, abdomen, etc, pains that are manifested elsewhere due to poor kidney health.

How do you do a kidney cleanse? There are hundreds of herbal recipes, and many different homeopathic remedies used for cleansing kidney stones. One popular way to cleanse kidney is to a watermelon cleanse. Just purchase 20 - 100 kg of watermelon (which will make up a few huge melons) and sit in a bath filed with water. Eat all the watermelon throughout a day (as much as you can), while continually empting your urinary bladder into the water.

You will need a lot of liquid to cleanse the insides of your body. You can also choose to do water fast or a juice fast to help you produce a gallon of urine a day.

During fasting, avoid strenuous exercise. Light yoga, walking, gardening are all excellent means to stimulate your body metabolism.

However, do note that before you embark on any program, please first consult your health practitioner on how you can best do a kidney cleanse.

How to have good kidney health? It is possible to dissolve all your kidney stones in 3 weeks, but if you continue to drink tea, coffee, carbonated drinks and eat unhealthily on a consistent basis, you will begin to make new ones.

To maintain a healthy kidney, begin a regular exercise regime and also avoid alcohol, red meat, smoked meats, canned fish and canned pork. Continue to drink plenty of water and fluids everyday!
About the Author:Sandra Kim Leong publishes information on detoxification and cleansing. Based on today’s diet and environment, she feels that detoxification should form part of one’s regular regime. Please visit her site at for more information on colon cleansing, liver cleansing, kidney cleansing, etc.

Read more articles by: Sandra Kim Leong
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Friday, January 5, 2007

Kidney Dialysis


Kidneys are made up of millions of tiny filters. Kidneys clean the blood and make urine.

Kidneys Removes Waste – Balance Body Fluids- Control Blood Pressure – Make Red Blood Cells and keeps Bone Healthy. When Dialysis fails, these functions have to be replaced by Dialysis + Diet + Medication.

Symptoms of Organ(Kidney Dysfunction):

- Sickness, Confused and Nauseous when kidneys cannot remove wastes.

- Tired and Breathing problems and have swelling when kidney cannot Balance Body Fluid

What is Dialysis?

Dialysis is mechanism which does a function of Kidney: It uses membrane inside your body called “Peritoneum”. The Peritoneum forms a sac inside body. In Peritoneal Dialysis, this sac is filled with special solution, which comes in flexible bags.

Understand Dialysis and its Types:

For filling in and draining out the solution, you need to have a catheter. This catheter is a soft tube made up of special rubber. The Catheter is placed in the peritoneum by small surgical procedure. It is made up of silicon rubber which does not react with anything. It has two Decron Cuffs which holds it in place inside body.

The peritoneum has holes and rich blood supply which works like filter and cleans the blood. The wall of Peritoneum has “Pores” and “Holes”. It has lot of blood vessels around it. The wall separates the blood from solution, the “holes” allow small particles to pass through. The waste products pass from Blood into Dialysis solution through Peritoneum. This process is called as Diffusion i.e It is like everything tries to go from more crowded to less crowded place. Waste products are more crowded in the blood, so they pass into dialysis solution through the peritoneum.

The solution has sugar: Dextrose or Glucose in it. It is nature of Glucose to attract water. The extra water in blood is pulled out by glucose which is called as “Osmosis”. Osmosis is caused by glucose dissolved in dialysis solution.

The solution of Glucose or Dextrose comes in bags with normally different concentration i.e. 3.86%,2.27% and 1.36%. The same termed as Strong, Medium and Small. The stronger bag removes more water from the blood. High percentage denotes more strength.

This removal process of water from blood stops after few hours. Both the sides (blood and Solution) equally crowded. No waste can pass from blood into dialysis solution. The glucose leaves the solution and goes into blood by diffusion over period of time as it can no longer remove waste from blood. Hence, after few hours, you have to drain out the old solution and fill it in new solution to start cleaning process all over again.

Exchange Process: The following situation leads to draining of Old Solution and filling of New solution and is called exchange. Doctors shall prescribe number of exchanges you need to do in agricultural day.

When you do all exchanges on time, dialysis is taking place continuously, which is just like functioning of KIDNEYS.



CAPD: This is methodology wherein you do Dialysis yourself. You are free between
CCPD: The machine does it for you while you sleep.